*1: Approximately 80 gigabytes.
*2: As of August 26, 2021, based on a Toshiba survey. This was the world’s first successful demonstration of storing genome analysis data using data distribution storage technology that combines quantum cryptography communication technology and secret sharing technology.
*3: Unlike the computational security used in general cryptography, which relies on assumptions regarding the difficulty of solving a specific type of mathematical problem, information-theoretic security is a property that is guaranteed by the probabilistic independence of the confidential information from any information obtained by an attacker or eavesdropper. In theory, no eavesdropping attack will leak information.
*4: A method for encrypted communication in which a random number with the same length as the original data (unencrypted, “plaintext”) to be transmitted is used as the encryption key, which is disposed of after each use. Different encryption keys are used for different plaintexts. The encrypted text (“ciphertext”) is generated and transmitted as the exclusive OR of the plaintext data and the encryption key, and the plaintext is decrypted again on the receiving side as the result of exclusive OR of the ciphertext data and the encryption (decryption) key. This method satisfies information-theoretic security and is the strongest and most secure encryption method. It has been proved that even an attacker or eavesdropper with high computing power will be unable to decrypt from ciphertext to plaintext, regardless of the time available.
*5: The size of the shared data is about 80 GB, which is the same as the original genome analysis data.